Abstract: One of the triumphs of theoretical physics of the twentieth century was the development of Quantum Electrodynamics (QED), the fundamental theory of electrons and photons. QED not only describes the physics of the atom with extraordinary precision, but also the basic properties of the electron itself. The corresponding problem in particle and nuclear physics is to accurately describe the structure and interactions of hadrons, such as the proton and neutron, in terms of their fundamental constituents: the quarks and gluons of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). In this talk I will discuss a number of novel features of QCD such as “color transparency” and “intrinsic charm”, phenomena which were unexpected from conventional approaches to nuclear and particle physics. There are also important analogs between atomic and hadronic physics. For example, the light-front methods which underly phenomenology in high energy physics also have remarkable advantages for describing the wavefunctions of atoms in motion. Conversely, the production of relativistic antihydrogen has provided important insight into the conversion of quarks and gluons of QCD into hadrons at the amplitude level. I will also briefly review how mathematical methods based on an extra space dimension brings new insights into fundamental problems in hadron physics.